Best Type of Cardio Workout to Lose Weight? Introducing HIIT

We are busy folks travelling through the world at a super fast pace.  Therefore, we are often impatient and want immediate results!  This rings true even with our health and fitness.  Some believe that the best way to achieve a healthy, sculpted bod is through 30 to 6o minutes of traditional cardio exercise, but there’s a better way…a quicker, more efficient way, and that is high intensity interval training, or HIIT.

HIIT is a fat scorching, fitness boosting exercise strategy, wrapped up in a short, intense workout.   It starts with a warm up, followed by six to ten intervals of high, then medium intensity exercise and ends with a cool down, lasting only about 15-20 minutes.

Long duration cardio causes the body to enter a ‘steady state,’ where it adapts to the fixed speed.  While this does improve endurance, HIIT does NOT allow your body to adapt to a regular pace.  It trains the body to respond and recover from a multitude of demands, making it a healthier and more efficient machine, with far better endurance than that of regular cardio!

In terms of muscle definition, HIIT builds a more muscular and toned body than steady state cardio.  Our bodies are built for stop and go movements, not for long, steady motion.  That is why sprinters and long-distance runners have such different physiques!

As for that spare tire around your waist?  Steady state cardio does burn fat at about 500 calories for 30 minutes of training, and post workout, will continue to burn calories for about 30 to 60 minutes.  This is good, but interval training is better!  It revs up your metabolism and keeps it up for hours after your workout, burning a TON more fat than traditional cardio!

Also, HIIT helps build your cardiovascular AND anaerobic systems, resulting in faster speed and more power – a double whammy!  Therefore, runners who want to improve their speed should integrate some interval training into their workouts.

If you’re not convinced yet, here’s more!   One study suggests that HIIT may cause appetite suppression, while regular cardio can (yikes!) increase it.  Another study has shown that HIIT may be better at preventing diabetes than regular cardio.  Apparently, short sprints remove glycogen from the muscles and excess glucose from the blood.  Lengthy jogs remove blood glucose, but have zero effect on the muscles.

What’s great about HIIT workouts is that they can be done in many different ways:  by running on a track or treadmill, swimming, with an exercise bike, elliptical or with your own bodyweight.  Not to sound like your Mother, but you should always consult with your doctor before starting any new exercise program.  To exhaust your muscles of stored energy, use a 60 second split time for HIIT, and build up from six to ten intervals depending on your fitness level.

Example:   Hop on your exercise bike and warm up your body for five minutes at a nice, easy pace.  Then ride like hell for 60 seconds at a pace so intense that your muscles burn and the last few seconds seem undoable.  Drop your speed to a medium intensity pace for 120 seconds (beginner) to 60 seconds (advanced), and repeat this pattern through six sets (beginner) to ten sets (advanced).  Cool down with your nice and easy warm up pace for five more minutes.  End with a stretch of those tired muscles, and enjoy a little couch time while your body continues to burn calories!

With our crazy, busy lives, many are opting for HIIT to get lean and fit.  It is effective and in my opinion, more efficient than steady state cardio.  But the bottom line is:  minimal time commitment + variety = a more enjoyable workout!

How To Gain Better Results From Bodybuilding And Exercises

Nowadays, many people are continuously looking for new or improved alternatives to their bodybuilding and exercises in general. However, due to the many options that are available these days, it’s quite common for people to become confused on what to choose, regardless if they aim to hit the gym or workout at home. Fortunately, there are some things that can be done or kept in mind, which may help you to find the ideal match for your goal and needs in particular.

People tend to often recommended gaining insight on how the body works in general, especially when in regards to key muscle groups and how to gain more effective results. Overall, this can often allow for people to have better form, and they can get a better feel for what might work for them or against them as a result of their efforts.

It’s also a good idea to look at the broader picture with things. Many individuals often make the mistake of sticking to certain methods or routines, rather than mixing it all up. It’s also common for people to eat in a manner that goes against them, whether or not if this is regarding eating too much, too little, or consuming foods that may go against them in general.

Sometimes, in order to form a well-rounded routine, it’s good to also think about what you’re likely to stick to in the scheme of things. One thing that many people struggle with is keeping motivated, and often this can be due to boredom or doing exercising routines that seem overly tedious and less than enjoyable. Therefore, try to incorporate varying routines to help prevent boredom, and it’s also good to aim for things that you can at least find somewhat enjoyable.

Varying your routines also allows for your body to keep consistently challenged. Even for those who workout regularly and hard (with, it’s still possible to hit a plateau. This generally occurs when the body becomes used to things, resulting in it not working as hard as it would otherwise.

By taking the time to incorporate different routines, you can allow your body to become challenged more consistently, helping it to work harder and in your favor. However, at the same time, it’s also important to workout in other ways as well, making it important to include cardiovascular routines along with any muscle-building ones.

It’s also important to make sure that you stay realistic with your goals. Many individuals fall into the trap of setting their expectations too high or in a manner that may be unrealistic for their particular build. Generally, many tend to base their desired results off others, but it’s key to make sure that you’re working out in a manner that’s safe and meant for you in particular.

You can often find helpful information online and offline when it comes to bodybuilding and exercises. However, many people also find that it can be helpful to share their experiences and to gain feedback from places such as related websites, forums, or even with people offline as well. In the end, you might just be able to achieve your goals in a safe and effective manner.

Get inside info on fantastic bodybuilding and exercises advice and tips now in our comprehensive overview of all you need to know to burn the fat feed the muscle and no xplode.


MGF is a peptide known as mechano growth factor. This is an IGF-1Ec repair and growth factor that is developed in muscle tissues that has been damaged after exercise. This chemical is referred to as MGF, simply as a means of differentiating the peptide from other IGF variants which are commonly used for research purposes.

MGF can be applied to animals to generate regrowth in wasted tissue. This chemical can stimulate stem cells in the muscles, causing upregulation of the protein synthesis that can improve recovery and encourage quick muscle growth.

MGF can also initiate stem cell activation in IGF-ireceptor domains that will increase the turnover of protein synthesis over time. Naturally, the liver creates two igf splice variants of MGF which include IGF-1Ec and IGF-IEa. The latter is significantly less anabolic than the former, which is designed to activate stem cells. IGF-1Ec is the closest variant to the synthetic MGF.

Effects on Growth Factor Expression

Muscle mass can be regulated systematically or locally, and isoforms of IGF-1 have been cloned as a means of stimulating this reaction during research.

Expressions of these clones were only detectable in the tissues after mechanical stimulation, which gave rise to the name MGF. This reaction is not glycosylated and has been found to be smaller and contain a shorter half-life than IGF-1 that is produced in the liver.

MGF also has a different C terminal sequent as IGF-1 which means it will bind with different receptor or protein affinities.

Another cloned variant, LIGF-1, has been found in muscle tissues after exercise with a similar systemic type as IGF-1.

Evidence suggests MGF is very potent and can induce local protein synthesis capable of preventing apoptosis that can encourage remodeling and repair of affected tissues. Combining applications of MGF with electrical stimulation can be used to encourage the production of IGF-1, which is commonly slowed during the aging process.

Different Roles in Myoblast Proliferation and Differentiation

IGF-1 has been involved in tissue differentiation and repair, but when this peptide is spliced it can respond to different signals.

Splicing IGF-1 using different transcripts can encode a variety of proteins. Two of these can be produced in rodents throughout active muscle tissue, acting as positive regulators of muscle hypertrophy.

MGF is particularly common in muscle IGF in rodents while IGF-1 Eb acts similarly to the IGF-1 Ec that would be found naturally in humans throughout damaged or exercised muscles.

Mammalian skeletal muscle differentiation can be used to switch cellular programs– from proliferation states to differentiation. These peptides are helpful in regulating this process because they will only affect the tissues where they are applied rather than spreading throughout the body.

Neuroprotective Effects

Ischemic stroke is becoming increasingly common amongst aging populations, and splices of IGF-1 have been found to be effective in maintaining structures, to prevent this neuronal damage.

Isoforms of IGF-1 are in high conservation states in mammals, which notes their importance. Gerbils in particular have been noted for the high amount of liver type IGF-1E and MGF transcripts.

Analysis shows that administering MGF mRNA to a post-ischemic brain in gerbils can increase the expression of the endogenous MGF.

Western blot analysis has been used to extract proteins from the hippocampal regions of the ischemia, to increase the MGF levels in these animals.

MGF has a different peptide sequent than IGF-IEa that is responsible for replenishing any skeletal muscle satellite cells. This means that the peptide can remain anabolic for a longer period of time when compared to the systematic release of MGF liver variants.

Applying MGF can also encourage hypertrophy and repair localized damage to muscle tissues by activating anabolic processes– including nitrogen retention and protein synthesis.

Tyrosine as well as Phenylalanine

Melanotan II, also known as MT-2, is a peptide discovered in the 1980s. It appears to researchers to be safe and effective when pinned against natural α-MSH. The results the many studies conducted since the peptide’s discovery have never shown any harmful side effects.

What is a Peptide?

A peptide is Greek for “digested”. The short chains of amino acids are linked by peptide bonds. Peptides can be distinguished from proteins based on size. As a benchmark, they contain approximately 50 amino acids or less.

The shortest peptide consists of two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond. It’s called a dipeptide. There are also bytripeptides, tetrapeptides, and polypetides. A polypeptide is a long, continuous yet unbranched peptide chain.

What is an Amino Acid?

Amino acids are organic compounds made from amine and carboxylic acid functional group. They also have a side-chain specific that is amino acid specific.

The key elements of an amino acid include:

Carbon Hydrogen



There are close to 500 amino acids which are classified in different ways. Structurally speaking, they can be alpha, beta, gamma or delta. Some other ways to categorize them include:

Side Chain Group (Aliphatic, Acyclic, Aromatic, Containing Hydroxyl or Sulfur)

Polarity pH Level

As a protein, amino acids make up human muscles, cells, and other type of tissue. It is the second largest component of the body. Water is the first.

Amino acids are critical for neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis. They are used to synthesize other molecules. Examples include:

Trypophan. A precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

Tyrosine as well as Phenylalanine. Precursors of catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

Glycine. A precursor of porphyrins like heme.

Arginine. A precursor of nitric oxide.

Ornithine and S-Adenosylmethionine. Precursors of polyamines.

Aspartate, Glycine, and Glutamine. Precursors of nucleotides.

Phenylalanine. Precursor of phenylpropanoids, which are an important part of plant metabolism.

Classifications of Peptides

Peptides can be classified as:

Biological Oligomers and Polymers

Nucleic Acids

Oligo and Polysaccharides

Synthetic peptides are valuable in advancing biological sciences. Their genetic makeup allows researchers to see how strings of amino acids make up cells, combat disease, and improve overall health as well as the physique. Clinical trials involving MT-2 have proven to be helpful in the fight against skin cancer.

The Skin Cancer Foundation reports that “One in five Americans will develop skin cancer in the course of a lifetime.” In the United States, skin cancer is the most common form of cancer. There are 3.5 million skin cancers diagnosed annually in over two million people. MT-2 because of its tanning properties has been promising the prevention of different types of skin cancer.

First Synthesized Melanotan II

The University of Arizona first synthesized Melanotan II. They knew that melanin activated in the skin was one of the best ways to combat skin cancer. Inducing the body’s natural pigmentation to produce a tan before being exposed to UV was ideal. Through a naturally occurring hormone, α-MSH cause melanogenesis which causes the skin’s pigment cells to produce melanin.

To test Melanotan II’s efficiency, it was tested in an attempt to cause sunless tanning. It’s half life was too short so they worked to provide a better, more potent alternative. Researchers along with Victor J. Hruby and Ma E. Hadley found a peptide, α-MSH, that was 1,000 times more potent than a natural α-MSH. They gave the molecule the name of “Melanotan” and later “Melanotan-1”. Through further research, they discovered “Melanotan II,” a supposed answer to skin cancer melanoma.

The scientists wanted to use the peptides as a cancer fighter by creating a tan in test subjects without exposure to the sun. They believed that an artificial tan could reduce the potential of skin damage and ultimately deadly skin cancer. The scientists licensed their patented peptides to biotechnology companies that could continue to conduct research using them.

Reduction of Skin Cancer and Skin Damage

Melanotan 2 has been essential in the reduction of skin cancer and skin damage caused by harmful UV rays. Because it has natural tanning mechanisms in the body, it can effectively be used to tan the skin without exposure from the sun. Sensitivities to UV rays can be combated with MT-2.

The main research on the peptide has been done in an attempt to fight cancer. More and more studies are being conducted on test subjects as a way of measuring side effects and potential issues with dosage. Aside from its tanning properties, Melanotan II has a number of other benefits.

A Well-Known Aphrodisiac and Fighter of Erectile Dysfunction

Clinical trials showed tanning was evident after five low doses of Melanotan II were injected into research subjects every other day. Mild side effects were experienced but easily managed at smaller doses of MT-2. Erections, erectile dysfunction, and nausea were symptoms of Melanotan II. A known-aphrodisiac, the peptide has been known to increase libido, the frequency of erections, and fight erectile dysfunction.

A Weight Loss Aid

Melanotan 2 has also been known to increase weight loss. Research test subjects experienced suppression in caloric intake and an increase of oxygen consumption a week after studies started. It has been suggested that Melanotan 2 can lower caloric and carbohydrate intake in overweight and obese test subjects.

Cholesterol and Serum Insulin Levels Reduced

Cholesterol level reduction as well as serum insulin level reduction is more successful when compared to other control treatments. Melanotan II reduces the level of acetylcholine A caboxylase expression to prevent palmitoltransferase ImRNA and carnitine through muscle pair-feeding. Muscle issues are reduces while cholesterol and muscle fat catabolism is increased.

Additional Traits of MT-2

Other traits associated with chemical Melanotan 2 include:

Basal Insulinaemia Reduction

Feeding Inhibition

NPY Orexigenic Action Suppression

Kidney Failure and Muscle Breakdown from Too Much Melanotan 2

Too much Melanotan 2 has the possibility of causing kidney failure and muscle breakdown. Illinois Poison Control Center researchers describe a case in detail in clinical toxicology reports where the peptide was misused. Despite being advertised to the public, MT-2 can cause muscle proteins to enter the bloodstream which causes muscles to disintegrate and kidneys to fail.

Melanocortinergic Activation and Its Implications

Melanotan 2 is a synthetic version of the natural chemical melanocortin which is found in animals. This also mimics the effects of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone or a-MSH. The natural version of this chemical has been found to cause tanning of the skin as well as aphrodisiac effects in animals.

This peptide also appears to have effects in regulating food management or nerve reactions. Research on animal test subjects is still discovering the effects of this peptide on animals. To date, this peptide has not been approved for research on human test subjects.

Melanocortinergic Activation and Its Implications

Hypothalamic neurocircuitry, which is used to regulate energy homeostasis in rats, is not developed until the third postnatal week.
•    The fibers from hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are made up of a-MSH and neuropeptide fibers which are located in the brainstem as well as the melanocortin system. These can be noted in the receptor antagonists for malanoatn 2 by measuring NRP expression, body weight or energy expenditure.
•    Rat pups were injected with saline or melanotan 2 and then killed so their stomach weight and brown adiopose tissue could be measured for protein 1 mRNA uncoupling, could be compared after melanotan 2 administration.
•    Stomach weight was seen to decrease after the uncoupling of protein 1 mRNA.

These results were seen at all ages, which implies that a decrease food intake and increase in energy expenditure is standard. However, melanotan 2 was not found to affect NPY mRNA in the hypothalamus.

These effects were not shown to be mediated b NPY expression.

Promoting Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

Neuroprotective and neurotrophic potential of a-MSH analogsy, cyclo amide, a melanocortin receptor with known potency was examined.
•    Static nerve crush models were used to create a paradigm in order to investigate the neruotrophic properties associated with melanotan 2.
•    Melanotan 2 was found to significantly enhance the recovery of sensory function in these areas, after the sciatic nerve in rats suffered a crush lesion.

In addition to these results melanotan 2 was also found to possess potent neuroprotective properties. During the study application of melanotan 2 was found to partially protect these nerves from toxic neuropathy that was induced by cisplatin. This data was the first to demonstrate that a potent a-MSH analog, such as melanotan 2, can be effective in neuroprotection and regeneration.

Role in Central Control of Feeding

Injecting of melanocortin peptides or their analogues into cerebrospinal fluid or into ventromedial hypothalamus tissue in subnanomolar or nanomolar has been found to cause a long-term inhibition of an animal’s food intake.
•    These effects can remain in place for up to 9 hours. This phenomenon has been observed in several animal species, but it was most potent in rabbits. Anorectic effects of peptides were found to be primary rather than secondary to the shift of additional components of melanocortin-induced behaviors.
•    The site actions of the brain is not the effect adrenal mediation is exhibited in adrenalectomized animals. This is a strong effect because this inhibition did not reduce hunger induced by insulin induced hypoglycemia, 24 hour starvation or the stimulation of y-aminobutyric acid, opioid systems or noradregric.
•    Melanocortins appear to play a vital role in stress induced anorexia because in rats this condition is significantly attenuated by a blockage of receptors for melanocortin MC4.

The physiological effects of this phenomenon, plus inhibitory properties of melanocortins and the subsequent consequences could cause body weight homeostasis in animals. This is showcased hyperphagia or obesity syndromes, causing mutations of melanocortin MC4 genes.

Clinical trials are focusing on discovering potential therapeutic effects of melanocortin, which focuses on further understanding of the function of these peptides.